# Posts Tagged initial condition

## Today's Postings

### Toward inflation models compatible with the no-boundary proposal [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we investigate various inflation models in the context of the no-boundary proposal. We propose that a good inflation model should satisfy three conditions: observational constraints, plausible initial conditions, and naturalness of the model. For various inflation models, we assign the probability to each initial condition using the no-boundary proposal and define a quantitative standard, typicality, to check whether the model satisfies the observational constraints with probable initial conditions. There are three possible ways to satisfy the typicality criterion: there was pre-inflation near the high energy scale, the potential is finely tuned or the inflationary field space is unbounded, or there are sufficient number of fields that contribute to inflation. The no-boundary proposal rejects some of naive inflation models, explains some of traditional doubts on inflation, and possibly, can have observational consequences.

### Toward inflation models compatible with the no-boundary proposal

In this paper, we investigate various inflation models in the context of the no-boundary proposal. We propose that a good inflation model should satisfy three conditions: observational constraints, plausible initial conditions, and naturalness of the model. For various inflation models, we assign the probability to each initial condition using the no-boundary proposal and define a quantitative standard, typicality, to check whether the model satisfies the observational constraints with probable initial conditions. There are three possible ways to satisfy the typicality criterion: there was pre-inflation near the high energy scale, the potential is finely tuned or the inflationary field space is unbounded, or there are sufficient number of fields that contribute to inflation. The no-boundary proposal rejects some of naive inflation models, explains some of traditional doubts on inflation, and possibly, can have observational consequences.

### Note on the super inflation in loop quantum cosmology

Phenomenological effect of the super-inflation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is discussed. We investigate the case that the Universe is filled with the interacting field between massive scalar field and radiation. Considering the damping coefficient $\Gamma$ as a constant, the changes of the scale factor during super-inflation with four different initial conditions are discussed, and we find that the changes of the scale factor depends on the initial values of energy density of the scalar field and radiation at the bounce point. But no matter which initial condition is chosen, the radiation always dominated at the late time. Moreover, we investigate whether the super-inflation can provide enough e-folding number. For the super-inflation starts from the quantum bounce point, the initial value of Hubble parameter $H(t_i)\sim0$, then it is possible to solve the flatness problem and horizon problem. As an example, following the method of \cite{Amoros-prd} to calculate particle horizon on the condition that the radiation dominated at bounce point, and we find that the Universe has had enough time to be homogeneous and isotopic.

### Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

The observed dark matter (DM) abundance can be created from a thermal bath after the interaction rate which keeps the DM particles in thermal equilibrium falls below the expansion rate of the Universe. DM can also be excited directly from the inflaton or moduli decay, along with the excitation of the Standard Model degrees of freedom. Here we discuss the evolution of the DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from the inflaton decay. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance can be set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial condition. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism, also independent of the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM becomes non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial condition. Also depending on its mass and interaction rate, the DM could remain relativistic, thus acting like a dark radiation, or could behave as a warm or cold relic. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance, and compare with complementary constraints derived from indirect search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical constraints from the unitarity of the scattering matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we also show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

### Self-Sustained Turbulence without Dynamical Forcing: A Two-Dimensional Study of a Bistable Interstellar Medium

In this paper, the nonlinear evolution of a bistable interstellar medium is investigated using two-dimensional simulations with a realistic cooling rate, thermal conduction, and physical viscosity. The calculations are performed using periodic boundary conditions without any external dynamical forcing. As the initial condition, a spatially uniform unstable gas under thermal equilibrium is considered. At the initial stage, the unstable gas quickly segregates into two phases, or cold neutral medium (CNM) and warm neutral medium (WNM). Then, self-sustained turbulence is observed in which the CNM moves around in the WNM. We find that the interfacial medium (IFM) between the CNM and WNM plays an important role in sustaining the turbulence. The self-sustaining mechanism can be divided into two steps. First, thermal conduction drives fast flows streaming into concave CNM surfaces towards the WNM. The kinetic energy of the fast flows in the IFM is incorporated into that of the CNM through the phase transition. Second, turbulence inside the CNM deforms interfaces and forms other concave CNM surfaces, leading to fast flows in the IFM. This drives the first step again and a cycle is established by which turbulent motions are self-sustained.

### A short note on gravity with tensor auxiliary fields [Cross-Listing]

We consider gravity coupled to a second metric in the strong coupling limit, where the second kinetic term is absent. This system belongs to the recently discussed class of models of "gravity with auxiliary fields" by Pani et al. We prove that, in vacuum, these theories are always equivalent to GR with a cosmological constant, even in the case where the auxiliary field equations contain identities leaving undetermined functions. In the situation where some functions are undetermined, the actual value of the cosmological constant is dictated by an initial condition, and not by the parameters in the action.

### A new equilibrium torus solution and GRMHD initial conditions

General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations are providing influential models for black hole spin measurements, gamma ray bursts, and supermassive black hole feedback. Many of these simulations use the same initial condition: a rotating torus of fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium. A persistent concern is that simulation results sometimes depend on arbitrary features of the initial torus. For example, the Bernoulli parameter (which is related to outflows), appears to be controlled by the Bernoulli parameter of the initial torus. In this paper, we give a new equilibrium torus solution and describe two applications for the future. First, it can be used as a more physical initial condition for GRMHD simulations than earlier torus solutions. Second, it can be used in conjunction with earlier torus solutions to isolate the simulation results that depend on initial conditions. We assume axisymmetry, an ideal gas equation of state, constant entropy, and ignore self-gravity. We fix an angular momentum distribution and solve the relativistic Euler equations in the Kerr metric. The Bernoulli parameter, rotation rate, and geometrical thickness of the torus can be adjusted independently. Our torus tends to be more bound and have a larger radial extent than earlier torus solutions. While this paper was in preparation, several GRMHD simulations appeared based on our equilibrium torus. We believe it will continue to provide a more realistic starting point for future simulations.

### The Dynamical State of The Serpens South Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

We present the results of N$_2$H$^+$ ($J=1-0$) observations toward Serpens South, the nearest cluster-forming, infrared dark cloud. The physical quantities are derived by fitting the hyperfine structure of N$_2$H$^+$. The Herschel and 1.1-mm continuum maps show that a pc-scale filament fragments into three clumps with radii of $0.1-0.2$ pc and masses of $40-230M_\odot$. We find that the clumps contain smaller-scale ($\sim 0.04$ pc) structures, i.e., dense cores. We identify 70 cores by applying CLUMPFIND to the N$_2$H$^+$ data cube. In the central cluster-forming clump, the excitation temperature and line-width tend to be large, presumably due to protostellar outflow feedback and stellar radiation. However, for all the clumps, the virial ratios are evaluated to be $0.1-0.3$, indicating that the internal motions play only a minor role in the clump support. The clumps exhibit no free-fall, but low-velocity infall, and thus the clumps should be supported by additional forces. The most promising force is the globally-ordered magnetic field observed toward this region. We propose that the Serpens South filament was close to magnetically-critical and ambipolar diffusion triggered the cluster formation. We find that the northern clump, which shows no active star formation, has a mass and radius comparable to the central cluster-forming clump, and therefore, it is a likely candidate of a {\it pre-protocluster clump}. The initial condition for cluster formation is likely to be a magnetically-supported clump of cold, quiescent gas. This appears to contradict the accretion-driven turbulence scenario, for which the turbulence in the clumps is maintained by the accretion flow.

### At what Rigidity does the Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays begin?

Observationally, it is difficult to establish at what rigidity the modulation of galactic cosmic rays (CRs) actually begins in the heliosphere. It should be possible to do if the relevant local interstellar CR spectra were known and reliable measurements were made between 10 GV and about 200 GV, inside and outside the heliosphere. Numerical models for solar modulation studies are based on simply assuming that CR modulation begins at a given spatial boundary and at rigidities between 30 to 50 GV, usually handled as an initial condition. The Stochastic Differential Equations approach to numerical modelling presents the opportunity to determine the level of modulation from high to low rigidities because an initial condition at a prescribed high rigidity is not required. We present the results of such an approach and show the percentage modulation of CR protons as a function of kinetic energy between 100 MeV and 250 GeV.

### Effective Gravity and Homogenous Solutions [Cross-Listing]

Near the singularity, gravity should be modified to an effective theory, in the same sense as with the Euler-Heisenberg electrodynamics. This effective gravity surmounts to higher derivative theory, and as is well known, a much more reacher theory concerning the solution space. On the other hand, as a highly non linear theory, the understanding of this solution space must go beyond the linearized approach. In this talk we will present some results previously published by collaborators and myself, concerning solutions for vacuum spatially homogenous cases of Bianchi types $I$ and $VII_A$. These are the anisotropic generalizations of the cosmological spatially "flat", and "open" models respectively. The solutions present isotropisation in a weak sense depending on the initial condition. Also, depending on the initial condition, singular solutions are obtained.

### Effective Gravity and Homogeneous Solutions [Replacement]

Near the singularity, gravity should be modified to an effective theory, in the same sense as with the Euler-Heisenberg electrodynamics. This effective gravity surmounts to higher derivative theory, and as is well known, a much more reacher theory concerning the solution space. On the other hand, as a highly non linear theory, the understanding of this solution space must go beyond the linearized approach. In this talk we will present some results previously published by collaborators and myself, concerning solutions for vacuum spatially homogenous cases of Bianchi types $I$ and $VII_A$. These are the anisotropic generalizations of the cosmological spatially "flat", and "open" models respectively. The solutions present isotropisation in a weak sense depending on the initial condition. Also, depending on the initial condition, singular solutions are obtained.

### Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

Context: In planetesimal formation theory, several barriers have been proposed, which are bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to the density of 10^{-3} g/cm^3 in coagulation, which is more compact than the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self gravity to 10^{-1} g/cm^3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerate the growth, they grow enough rapidly to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is < 6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables the icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

### Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression [Replacement]

Context: In planetesimal formation theory, several barriers have been proposed, which are bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to the density of 10^{-3} g/cm^3 in coagulation, which is more compact than the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self gravity to 10^{-1} g/cm^3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerate the growth, they grow enough rapidly to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is < 6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables the icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

### Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies [Replacement]

We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of nu_e and anti-nu_e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1 <-> 2 allows for the usual bimodal instability ("flavor pendulum") in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy (IH) and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulum-like solution that occurs in NH where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.

### Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies [Cross-Listing]

We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of nu_e and anti-nu_e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1 <-> 2 allows for the usual bimodal instability ("flavor pendulum") in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy (IH) and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulum-like solution that occurs in NH where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.

### Pre-slow roll initial conditions: large scale power suppression and infrared aspects during inflation

If the large scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modify the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations via an initial condition transfer function $\mathcal{T}(k)$. We provide a general analytical study of its large and small scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical scalar field theories. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depend non-analytically on $\mathcal{T}(0)$. During inflation all quanta decay into many quanta even of the same field because of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay leads to a quantum entangled state of sub and superhorizon quanta with correlations across the horizon. We find the modifications of the decay width and the entanglement entropy from the initial conditions. In all cases, initial conditions from a "fast-roll" stage that lead to a suppression in the scalar power spectrum at large scales also result in a suppression of the dynamically generated masses, anomalous dimensions and decay widths

### Discussion on the Cosmological Vacuum Energy

The present discussion contribution is some remarks concerning and review of the proposal by one of us (C. Balazs) to explain the cosmological constant by a/the principle of entropy. Used without further comment this principle of entropy could easily lead to untrustable {\em nonlocalities}, but taking into account that the long range correlations are rather to be understood as due to initial condition set up the model for the cosmological constant being small by one of us becomes quite viable.

### Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Replacement]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple ${1}{2}m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

### Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Cross-Listing]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple $\frac{1}{2}m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

### Revisiting the interacting model of new agegraphic dark energy

In this paper, a new version of the interacting model of new agegraphic dark energy (INADE) is proposed and analyzed in detail. The interaction between dark energy and dark matter is reconsidered. The interaction term $Q=bH_0\rho_{\rm de}^\alpha\rho_{\rm dm}^{1-\alpha}$ is adopted, which abandons the Hubble expansion rate $H$ and involves both $\rho_{\rm de}$ and $\rho_{\rm dm}$. Moreover, the new initial condition for the agegraphic dark energy is used, which solves the problem of accommodating baryon matter and radiation in the model. The solution of the model can be given using an iterative algorithm. A concrete example for the calculation of the model is given. Furthermore, the model is constrained by using the combined Planck data (Planck+BAO+SNIa+$H_0$) and the combined WMAP-9 data (WMAP+BAO+SNIa+$H_0$). Three typical cases are considered: (A) $Q=bH_0\rho_{\rm de}$, (B) $Q=bH_0\sqrt{\rho_{\rm de}\rho_{\rm dm}}$, and (C) $Q=bH_0\rho_{\rm dm}$, which correspond to $\alpha=1$, 1/2, and 0, respectively. The departures of the models from the $\Lambda$CDM model are measured by the $\Delta$BIC and $\Delta$AIC values. It is shown that the INADE model is better than the NADE model in the fit, and the INADE(A) model is the best in fitting data among the three cases.

### MHD Simulation of a Sigmoid Eruption of Active Region 11283

Current magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the initiation of solar eruptions are still commonly carried out with idealized magnetic field models, whereas the realistic coronal field prior to eruptions can possibly be reconstructed from the observable photospheric field. Using a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation prior to a sigmoid eruption in AR 11283 as the initial condition in a MHD model, we successfully simulate the realistic initiation process of the eruption event, as is confirmed by a remarkable resemblance to the SDO/AIA observations. Analysis of the pre-eruption field reveals that the envelope flux of the sigmoidal core contains a coronal null and furthermore the flux rope is prone to a torus instability. Observations suggest that reconnection at the null cuts overlying tethers and likely triggers the torus instability of the flux rope, which results in the eruption. This kind of simulation demonstrates the capability of modeling the realistic solar eruptions to provide the initiation process.

### Bifurcation Diagrams and Generalized Bifurcation Diagrams for a rotational model of an oblate satellite [Cross-Listing]

This paper presents bifurcation and generalized bifurcation diagrams for a rotational model of an oblate satellite. Special attention is paid to parameter values describing one of Saturn’s moons, Hyperion. For various oblateness the largest Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (LCE) is plotted. The largest LCE in the initial condition as well as in the mixed parameter-initial condition space exhibits a fractal structure, for which the fractal dimension was calculated. It results from the bifurcation diagrams of which most of the parameter values for preselected initial conditions lead to chaotic rotation. The First Recurrence Time (FRT) diagram provides an explanation of the birth of chaos and the existence of quasi-periodic windows occuring in the bifurcation diagrams.

### Bifurcation Diagrams and Generalized Bifurcation Diagrams for a rotational model of an oblate satellite [Replacement]

This paper presents bifurcation and generalized bifurcation diagrams for a rotational model of an oblate satellite. Special attention is paid to parameter values describing one of Saturn’s moons, Hyperion. For various oblateness the largest Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (LCE) is plotted. The largest LCE in the initial condition as well as in the mixed parameter-initial condition space exhibits a fractal structure, for which the fractal dimension was calculated. It results from the bifurcation diagrams of which most of the parameter values for preselected initial conditions lead to chaotic rotation. The First Recurrence Time (FRT) diagram provides an explanation of the birth of chaos and the existence of quasi-periodic windows occuring in the bifurcation diagrams.

### Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star and a mild supernova explosion is driven. However, this supernova ejecta lack momentum and falls back onto the neutron star which gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole. In order to study the hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta, we use the well established hydrodynamic models. In such a disk neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. Higher the accretion rate (dot{M}), higher is the density and temperature in the disks. In this work we deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 M_sun s^{-1} \lesssim dot{M} \lesssim 0.01 M_sun s^{-1} and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Si-rich abundances as the initial condition of nucleosynthesis at the outer disk, and being equipped with the disk hydrodynamics and the nuclear network code, we study the abundance evolution as matter inflows and falls into the central object. We investigate the variation in the nucleosynthesis products in the disk with the change in the initial abundance at the outer disk and also with the change in the mass accretion rate. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like {31}P, {39}K, {43}Sc, {35}Cl, and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk via outflows and hence they should leave their signature in observed data.

### Hemispherical Asymmetry and Local non-Gaussianity: a Consistency Condition

In this paper we provide a consistency relation between the amplitude of the hemispherical bipolar asymmetry, $A$, and the amplitude of the primordial non-Gaussianity in the squeezed limit, $f_{NL}$, as $|A| \lesssim 10^{-1}f_{NL}$. We demonstrate that this consistency condition is at work for any model of inflation in which the curvature perturbations is sourced by a single light field with the Bunch-Davies initial condition, irrespective of the number of inflation fields which contribute to the background inflationary expansion. As a non-trivial example, we show that observable hemispherical asymmetry can be generated in single field non-attractor inflationary models. We also study hemispherical asymmetry generated in the models of multiple fields inflation. We show that $A$ is controlled by the weighted sum of non-Gaussianity contribution from each field. In particular, we show that observable hemispherical asymmetry can be generated in models where inhomogeneities are generated from a light scalar field modulating the surface of end of inflation.

### Hemispherical Asymmetry and Local non-Gaussianity: a Consistency Condition [Replacement]

In this paper we provide a consistency relation between the amplitude of the hemispherical bipolar asymmetry, $A$, and the amplitude of the primordial non-Gaussianity in the squeezed limit, $f_{NL}$, as $|A| \lesssim 10^{-1} f_{NL}$. We demonstrate that this consistency condition is at work for any model of inflation in which the curvature perturbations is sourced by a single light field with the Bunch-Davies initial condition, irrespective of the number of inflation fields which contribute to the background inflationary expansion. As a non-trivial example, we show that observable hemispherical asymmetry can be generated in single field non-attractor inflationary models. We also study hemispherical asymmetry generated in the models of multiple fields inflation. We show that $A$ is controlled by the weighted sum of non-Gaussianity contribution from each field. In particular, we show that observable hemispherical asymmetry can be generated in models where inhomogeneities are generated from a light scalar field modulating the surface of end of inflation.

### Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Eruption on 2010 April 8 [Replacement]

The structure of the coronal magnetic field prior to eruptive processes and the conditions for the onset of eruption are important issues that can be addressed through studying the magnetohydrodynamic stability and evolution of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models. This paper uses data-constrained NLFFF models of a solar active region that erupted on 2010 April~8 as initial condition in MHD simulations. These models, constructed with the techniques of flux rope insertion and magnetofrictional relaxation, include a stable, an approximately marginally stable, and an unstable configuration. The simulations confirm previous related results of magnetofrictional relaxation runs, in particular that stable flux rope equilibria represent key features of the observed pre-eruption coronal structure very well and that there is a limiting value of the axial flux in the rope for the existence of stable NLFFF equilibria. The specific limiting value is located within a tighter range, due to the sharper discrimination between stability and instability by the MHD description. The MHD treatment of the eruptive configuration yields very good agreement with a number of observed features like the strongly inclined initial rise path and the close temporal association between the coronal mass ejection and the onset of flare reconnection. Minor differences occur in the velocity of flare ribbon expansion and in the further evolution of the inclination; these can be eliminated through refined simulations. We suggest that the slingshot effect of horizontally bent flux in the source region of eruptions can contribute significantly to the inclination of the rise direction. Finally, we demonstrate that the onset criterion formulated in terms of a threshold value for the axial flux in the rope corresponds very well to the threshold of the torus instability in the considered active region.

### Initial condition from the action principle and its application to cosmology and to false vacuum bubbles [Cross-Listing]

We study models where the gauge coupling constants, masses, etc are functions of some conserved charge in the universe. We first consider the standard Dirac action, but where the mass and the electromagnetic coupling constant are a function of the charge in the universe and afterwards extend this scalar fields. For Dirac field in the flat space formulation, the formalism is not manifestly Lorentz invariant, however Lorentz invariance can be restored by performing a phase transformation of the Dirac field. In the case where scalar field are considered, there is the new feature that an initial condition for the scalar field is derived from the action. In the case of the Higgs field, the initial condition require, that the universe be at the false vacuum state at a certain time slice, which is quite important for inflation scenarios. Also false vacuum branes will be studied in a similar approach. We discuss also the use of "spoiling terms", that violate gauge invariant to introduce these initial condition.

### Initial condition from the action principle and its application to cosmology and to false vacuum bubbles [Replacement]

We study models where the gauge coupling constants, masses, etc are functions of some conserved charge in the universe. We first consider the standard Dirac action, but where the mass and the electromagnetic coupling constant are a function of the charge in the universe and afterwards extend this scalar fields. For Dirac field in the flat space formulation, the formalism is not manifestly Lorentz invariant, however Lorentz invariance can be restored by performing a phase transformation of the Dirac field. In the case where scalar field are considered, there is the new feature that an initial condition for the scalar field is derived from the action. In the case of the Higgs field, the initial condition require, that the universe be at the false vacuum state at a certain time slice, which is quite important for inflation scenarios. Also false vacuum branes will be studied in a similar approach. We discuss also the use of "spoiling terms", that violate gauge invariant to introduce these initial condition.

### Influence of initial conditions on large scale dynamo growth rate

To investigate the effect of energy and helicity on the growth of large scale magnetic field, helical kinetic forcing was applied to the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) system that had a specific distribution of energy and helicity as an initial condition. Simulation results show the saturation of a system is not influenced by the initial conditions, but the growth rate of large scale magnetic field is proportionally dependent on the initial large scale magnetic energy and helicity. Comparison of the profiles of evolving magnetic and kinetic energy implies that the large scale kinetic energy plays a preceding role in the MHD dynamo in the early time regime. Kinetic energy was observed to migrate backward when the external energy flew into the three dimensional MHD system. The data were analyzed and interpreted using the equations from quasi normal approximation and two scale mean field method.

### Wess-Zumino Inflation in Light of Planck

We discuss cosmological inflation in the minimal Wess-Zumino model with a single massive chiral supermultiplet. With suitable parameters and assuming a plausible initial condition at the start of the inflationary epoch, the model can yield scalar perturbations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) of the correct strength with a spectral index n_s ~ 0.96 and a tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r < 0.1, consistent with the Planck CMB data. We also discuss the possibility of topological inflation within the Wess-Zumino model, and the possibility of combining it with a seesaw model for neutrino masses. This would violate R-parity, but at such a low rate that the lightest supersymmetric particle would have a lifetime long enough to constitute the astrophysical cold dark matter.

### Cosmological constraints on Brans-Dicke theory

We report strong cosmological constraints on the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity using Cosmic Microwave Background data. We consider two types of models. First, the initial condition of the scalar field is fixed to give the same effective gravitational strength G_{eff} today as the one measured on the Earth, G_N. In this case the BD parameter \omega is constrained to \omega> 177 at the 95% confidence level, improving by a factor of two over previous constraints. In the second type the initial condition for the scalar is a free parameter leading to a somewhat stronger constrain of \omega > 288 while G_{eff} is constrained to 0.97<G_{eff}/G_N <1.22 at the 95% confidence level. We argue that these constraints have greater validity than for the BD theory and are valid for any Horndeski theory which approximates BD on cosmological scales. In this sense, our constraints place strong limits on possible modifications of gravity that might explain cosmic acceleration.

### Cosmological Perturbation Theory [Replacement]

A short pedagogical overview of cosmological perturbation theory, following the lectures given during the brazilian school of cosmology held in August 2012. Topics treated are: I. The background II. SVT decomposition and the gauge issue. III. The example of the tensor modes. IV. Density fluctuations, transfer function and power spectrum. V. Initial condition theory: quantum vacuum fluctuations.

### Cosmological Perturbation Theory

A short pedagogical overview of cosmological perturbation theory, following the lectures given during the brazilian school of cosmology held in August 2012. Topics treated are: I. The background II. SVT decomposition and the gauge issue. III. The example of the tensor modes. IV. Density fluctuations, transfer function and power spectrum. V. Initial condition theory: quantum vacuum fluctuations.

### On the role of initial and boundary conditions in numerical simulations of accretion flows [Replacement]

We study the effects of initial and boundary conditions, taking two-dimensional hydrodynamical numerical simulations of hot accretion flow as an example. The initial conditions considered include a rotating torus, a solution expanded from the one-dimensional global solution of hot accretion flows, injected gas with various angular momentum distributions, and the gas from a large-scale numerical simulation. Special attention is paid to the radial profiles of the mass accretion rate and density. Both can be described by a power-law function, $\dot{M}\propto r^s$ and $\rho\propto r^{-p}$. We find that if the angular momentum is not very low, the value of $s$ is not sensitive to the initial condition and lies within a narrow range, $0.47\la s \la 0.55$. However, the value of $p$ is more sensitive to the initial condition and lies in the range $0.48\la p \la 0.8$. The diversity of the density profile is because different initial conditions give different radial profiles of radial velocity due to the different angular momentum of the initial conditions. When the angular momentum of the accretion flow is very low, the inflow rate is constant with radius. Taking the torus model as an example, we have also investigated the effects of inner and outer boundary conditions by considering the widely adopted "outflow" boundary condition and the "mass flux conservation" condition. We find that the results are not sensitive to these two boundary conditions.

### On the role of initial and boundary conditions in numerical simulations of accretion flows

We study the effects of initial and boundary conditions, taking two-dimensional hydrodynamical numerical simulations of hot accretion flow as an example. The initial conditions considered include a rotating torus, a solution expanded from the one-dimensional global solution of hot accretion flows, injected gas with various angular momentum, and the gas from a large-scale numerical simulation. Special attention is paid to the radial profiles of the mass accretion rate and density. Both can be described by a power-law function, $\dot{M}\propto r^s$ and $\rho\propto r^{-p}$. We find that if the angular momentum is not very low, the value of $s$ is not sensitive to the initial condition and lies within a narrow range, $0.47\la s \la 0.55$. However, the value of $p$ is more sensitive to the initial condition and lies in the range $0.48\la p \la 0.8$. The diversity of the density profile is because different initial conditions give different radial profiles of radial velocity due to the different angular momentum of the initial conditions. When the angular momentum of the accretion flow is very low, the inflow rate is constant with radius. Taking the torus model as an example, we have also investigated the effects of inner and outer boundary conditions by considering the widely adopted "outflow" boundary condition and the "mass flux conservation" condition. We find that the results are not sensitive to these two boundary conditions.

### Problems with Propagation and Time Evolution in f(T) Gravity [Replacement]

Teleparallel theories of gravity have a long history. They include a special case referred to as the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity (TEGR, aka GR$_{\|}$). Recently this theory has been generalized to f(T) gravity. Tight constraints from observations suggest that f(T) gravity is not as robust as initially hoped. This might hint at hitherto undiscovered problems at the theoretical level. In this work, we point out that a generic f(T) theory can be expected to have certain problems including superluminal propagating modes, the presence of which can be revealed by using the characteristic equations that govern the dynamics in f(T) gravity and/or the Hamiltonian structure of the theory via Dirac constraint analysis. We use several examples from simpler gauge field theories to explain how such superluminal modes could arise. We also point out problems with the Cauchy development of a constant time hypersurface in FLRW spacetime in f(T) gravity. The time evolution from a FLRW (and as a special case, Minkowski spacetime) initial condition is not unique.

### Problems with Propagation and Time Evolution in f(T) Gravity [Cross-Listing]

Teleparallel theories of gravity have a long history. They include a special case referred to as the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity (TEGR, aka GR$_{\|}$). Recently this theory has been generalized to f(T) gravity. Tight constraints from observations suggest that f(T) gravity is not as robust as initially hoped. This might hint at hitherto undiscovered problems at the theoretical level. In this work, we point out that a generic f(T) theory can be expected to have certain problems including superluminal propagating modes, the presence of which can be revealed by using the characteristic equations that govern the dynamics in f(T) gravity and/or the Hamiltonian structure of the theory via Dirac constraint analysis. We use several examples from simpler gauge field theories to explain how such superluminal modes could arise. We also point out problems with the Cauchy development of a constant time hypersurface in FLRW spacetime in f(T) gravity. The time evolution from a FLRW (and as a special case, Minkowski spacetime) initial condition is not unique.

### The Variety of Solutions for Dynamics in the Local Group

This exploration of solutions for the orbits of Local Group galaxies under the cosmological initial condition of growing peculiar velocities and fitted to measured distances, redshifts, and proper motions reveals a considerable variety of histories allowed by present constraints. The solutions also point to computations and measurements at the current level of precision that may lead to a more accurate picture of Local Group dynamics, or perhaps point to adjustments of our simple picture of the arrangement of mass within the Local Group.

### On the galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies [Replacement]

High resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred disks present spiral arms nearly corotatingwith disk particles, strong barred models (bulged or bulge-less) quickly develop a bar-spiral structure dominant in density, with a pattern speed almost constant in radius. As the bar strength decreases the arm departs from bar rigid rotation and behaves similar to the unbarred case. In strong barred models we detect in the frequency space other subdominant and slower modes at large radii, in agreement with previous studies, however we also detect them in the configuration space. We propose that the distinctive behaviour of the dominant spiral modes can be exploited in order to constraint the nature of Galactic spiral arms by the astrometric survey GAIA and by 2-D spectroscopic surveys like CALIFA and MANGA in external galaxies.

### On the Galactic Spiral Arms Nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

High resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred disks present spiral arms nearly corotatingwith disk particles, strong barred models (bulged or bulge-less) quickly develop a bar-spiral structure dominant in density, with a pattern speed almost constant in radius. As the bar strength decreases the arm departs from bar rigid rotation and behaves similar to the unbarred case. In strong barred models we detect in the frequency space other subdominant and slower modes at large radii, in agreement with previous studies, however we also detect them in the configuration space. We propose that the distinctive behaviour of the dominant spiral modes can be exploited in order to constraint the nature of Galactic spiral arms by the astrometric survey GAIA and by 2-D spectroscopic surveys like CALIFA and MANGA in external galaxies.

### Unveiling the detailed density and velocity structures of the protostellar core B335

We present an observational study of the protostellar core B335 harboring a low-mass Class 0 source. The observations of the H13CO+(J=1-0) line emission were carried out using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Our combined image of the interferometer and single-dish data depicts detailed structures of the dense envelope within the core. We found that the core has a radial density profile of n(r) prop. r^-p and a reliable difference in the power-law indices between the outer and inner regions of the core: p~2 for r >= 4000 AU and p ~ 1.5 for r <= 4000 AU}. The dense core shows a slight overall velocity gradient of ~1.0 km s^-1 over the scale of 20,000 AU across the outflow axis. We believe that this velocity gradient represents a solid-body-like rotation of the core. The dense envelope has a quite symmetrical velocity structure with a remarkable line broadening toward the core center, which is especially prominent in the position-velocity diagram across the outflow axis. The model calculations of position-velocity diagrams do a good job of reproducing observational results using the collapse model of an isothermal sphere in which the core has an inner free-fall region and an outer region conserving the conditions at the formation stage of a central stellar object. We derived a central stellar mass of ~0.1 M_sun, and suggest a small inward velocity, v(r>r_inf) ~ 0 km s^-1 in the outer core at >= 4000 AU. We concluded that our data can be well explained by gravitational collapse with a quasi-static initial condition, such as Shu’s model, or by the isothermal collapse of a marginally critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere.

### Heavy gravitino in hybrid inflation [Cross-Listing]

It is known that supersymmetric hybrid inflation model may require severe tunings on the initial condition for large gravitino mass of order 100 – 1000 TeV due to the constant term in the superpotential. We propose a modified hybrid inflation model, where the constant term is suppressed during inflation and generated after inflation by replacing a constant term with dynamical field. In this modified model, successful inflation consistent with large gravitino mass takes place without severe tunings on the initial condition. Constraint from cosmic strings is also relaxed.

### Heavy gravitino in hybrid inflation [Replacement]

It is known that supersymmetric hybrid inflation model may require severe tunings on the initial condition for large gravitino mass of order 100 – 1000 TeV due to the constant term in the superpotential. We propose a modified hybrid inflation model, where the constant term is suppressed during inflation and generated after inflation by replacing a constant term with dynamical field. In this modified model, successful inflation consistent with large gravitino mass takes place without severe tunings on the initial condition. Constraint from cosmic strings is also relaxed.

### Modeling line-driven disk wind for broad absorption lines of quasars

The disk wind, which is powered by the radiation force due to spectral lines (line force), is studied for broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. We investigate the structure of the disk wind based on the non-hydrodynamic method and compare with wind properties inferred from X-ray observations of BAL quasars. In this paper, we apply the stellar wind theory to the initial condition (the mass outflow rate at the base of the wind). We found the funnel-shaped winds with a half opening angle of 50^{circ} for the case of epsilon=0.3-0.9 and M_{BH}=10^{7-8.5}M_odot, where epsilon is the Eddington ratio and M_{BH} is the black hole mass. Thus, the absorption features are observed for an observer of which a viewing angle is around 50^{circ}. A probability of BAL quasars is 7-11%, which is roughly consistent the abundance ratio of BAL quasars, 10-15%. Here, the probability is estimated by the solid angle, that the absorbing features would be detected, divided by 4pi. In contrast, if the Eddington ratio is smaller than 0.01 or if the black hole is very massive, M_{BH} < 10^9M_{odot}, the disk wind is not launched due to the less effective line force. Then, the quasars are identified as non-BAL quasars independently of the observer’s viewing angle.

### Equilibrium Points and Zero Velocity Surfaces in the Restricted Four Body Problem with Solar Wind Drag

We have analyzed the motion of an infinitesimal mass in the restricted four body problem with solar wind drag. It is assumed that forces which govern the motion are mutual gravitational attractions of the primaries, radiation pressure force and solar wind drag. We have derived the equations of motion and find the Jacobi integral, zero velocity surfaces and particular solutions of the system. It is found that three collinear points are real when radiation factor $0<\beta<0.1$ whereas only one real point obtained when $0.125<\beta<0.2$. Again, stability property of the system is examined with the help of Poincar\’{e} surface of section (PSS) and Lyapunov characteristic exponents (LCEs). It is found that in presence of drag forces LCE is negative for a specific initial condition, hence the corresponding trajectory is regular whereas regular islands in the PSS are expanded.

### Non-Gaussianity from Attractor Curvaton [Cross-Listing]

We propose a curvaton model in which the initial condition of the curvaton oscillation is determined by its attractor behavior during inflation. Assuming a chaotic inflation model, we find that the initial condition determined by the attractor behavior is appropriate to generate a sizable non-Gaussianity contribution to the curvature perturbation, which will be tested in the foreseeable future. Implications on the thermal history of the universe and on particle physics models are also discussed.

### Extrema statistics in the dynamics of a non-Gaussian random field [Cross-Listing]

When the equations that govern the dynamics of a random field are nonlinear, the field can develop with time non-Gaussian statistics even if its initial condition is Gaussian. Here, we provide a general framework for calculating the effect of the underlying nonlinear dynamics on the relative densities of maxima and minima of the field. Using this simple geometrical probe, we can identify the size of the non-Gaussian contributions in the random field, or alternatively the magnitude of the nonlinear terms in the underlying equations of motion. We demonstrate our approach by applying it to an initially Gaussian field that evolves according to the deterministic KPZ equation, which models surface growth and shock dynamics.

### Cold accretion in early galaxy formation and its Lyman-alpha signatures [Replacement]

The Lya emission has played an important role in detecting high-redshift galaxies, including currently the most distant one at redshift z=8.6. It may also contain important information on the origin of these galaxies. Here, we investigate the formation of a typical L* galaxy and its observational signatures at the earliest stage, by combining a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations using the newly improved ART^2 code. Our cosmological simulation uses the Aquila initial condition which zooms in onto a Milky Way-like halo with high resolutions, and our radiative transfer couples multi-wavelength continuum, Lya line, and ionization of hydrogen. We find that the modeled galaxy starts to form at redshift z ~ 24 through efficient accretion of cold gas, which produces a strong Lya line with a luminosity of L(Lya) ~ 10^42 erg/s as early as z ~ 14. The Lya emission appears to trace the cold, dense gas. The lines exhibit asymmetric, single-peak profiles, and are shifted to the blue wing, a characteristic feature of gas inflow. Moreover, the contribution to the total Lya luminosity by excitation cooling increases with redshift, and it becomes dominant at z >= 6. We predict that L* galaxies such as the modeled one may be detected at z <= 8 by JWST and ALMA with a reasonable integration time. Beyond redshift 12, however, only Lya line may be observable by narrow band surveys. Our results suggest that Lya line is one of the most powerful tools to detect the first generation of galaxies, and to decipher their formation mechanism.

### Cold accretion in early galaxy formation and its Lyman-alpha signatures

The Lya emission has played an important role in detecting high-redshift galaxies, including currently the most distant one at redshift z=8.6. It may also contain important information on the origin of these galaxies. Here, we investigate the formation of a typical L* galaxy and its observational signatures at the earliest stage, by combining a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations using the newly improved ART^2 code. Our cosmological simulation uses the Aquila initial condition which zooms in onto a Milky Way-like halo with high resolutions, and our radiative transfer couples multi-wavelength continuum, Lya line, and ionization of hydrogen. We find that the modeled galaxy starts to form at redshift z ~ 24 through efficient accretion of cold gas, which produces a strong Lya line with a luminosity of L(Lya) ~ 10^42 erg/s as early as z ~ 14. The Lya emission appears to trace the cold, dense gas. The lines exhibit asymmetric, single-peak profiles, and are shifted to the blue wing, a characteristic feature of gas inflow. Moreover, the contribution to the total Lya luminosity by excitation cooling increases with redshift, and it becomes dominant at z >= 6. We predict that L* galaxies such as the modeled one may be detected at z <= 8 by JWST and ALMA with a reasonable integration time. Beyond redshift 12, however, only Lya line may be observable by narrow band surveys. Our results suggest that Lya line is one of the most powerful tools to detect the first generation of galaxies, and to decipher their formation mechanism.