# Archive for category Solar and Stellar

## Today's Postings

### Brown Dwarf Photospheres are Patchy: A Hubble Space Telescope Near-infrared Spectroscopic Survey Finds Frequent Low-level Variability

Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used HST/WFC3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 $\mu$m for $\approx$40 min per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find 6 brown dwarfs with confident $(p>95\%)$ variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and 5 brown dwarfs with tentative $(p>68\%)$ variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction $f_{min}=27^{+11}_{-7}\%$ over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid L, late L and mid T spectral types; for early T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broad-band peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

### Probing the models: Abundances for high-mass stars in binaries

The complexity of composite spectra of close binary star system makes study of the spectra of their component stars extremely difficult. For this reason there exists very little information on the photospheric chemical composition of stars in close binaries, despite its importance for informing our understanding of the evolutionary processes of stars. In a long-term observational project we aim to fill this gap with systematic abundance studies for the variety of binary systems. The core of our analysis is the spectral disentangling technique, which allows isolation of the individual component star spectra from the time-series of observed spectra. We present new results for high-mass stars in close binaries. So far, we have measured detailed abundances for 22 stars in a dozen detached binary systems. The parameter space for the stars in our sample comprises masses in the range 8–22 M_sun, surface gravities of 3.1–4.2 (c.g.s.) and projected rotational velocities of 30–240 km/s. Whilst recent evolutionary models for rotating single stars predict changes in photospheric abundances even during the main sequence lifetime, no star in our sample shows signs of these predicted changes. It is clear that other effects prevail in the chemical evolution of components in binary stars even at the beginning of their evolution.

### STEREO/HI and Optical Observations of the Classical Nova V5583 Sagittarii

The classical nova V5583 Sgr (Nova Sagittarii 2009 No 3) has been observed during the rise phase and shortly after by NASA’s STEREO/HI instruments, with later optical spectroscopy obtained with the R-C Spectrograph at CTIO, Chile. The time of peak in the STEREO passband has been constrained to within 4 hours, as a result of the high cadence data obtained by STEREO/HI. The optical spectra show the nova evolving from the permitted to the nebular phases. The neon abundance in the ejecta is [Ne/O] > +1:0, which suggests that V5583 Sgr was most likely a neon nova.

### Solar Magnetized "Tornadoes': Evidence for Rotational Motion in a Tornado-like Prominence

Su et al. (2012) proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as “tornado-like prominences” when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twists in filament. However, no observations have successfully identified rotational motion of the magnetic structure itself from other motions such as oscillation and plasma flow. Here we report the first solid evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence obtained from spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines in the frame of a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA images, indicate a rotational motion with a speed of $\sim$5 km s$^{-1}$. The data also revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called “the prominence-corona transition region”.

### HT Cas - eclipsing dwarf nova during its superoutburst in 2010

We present results of a world-wide observing campaign of the eclipsing dwarf nova – HT Cas during its superoutburst in November 2010. Using collected data we were able to conduct analysis of the light curves and we calculated $O-C$ diagrams. The CCD photometric observations enabled us to derive the superhump period and with the timings of eclipses the orbital period was calculated. Based on superhump and orbital period estimations the period excess and mass ratio of the system were obtained.

### Kinetic Turbulence in the Terrestrial Magnetosheath: Cluster Observations

We present a first statistical study of subproton and electron scales turbulence in the terrestrial magnetosheath using the Cluster Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) waveforms of the STAFF instrument measured in the frequency range [1,180] Hz. It is found that clear spectral breaks exist near the electron scale, which separate two power-law like frequency bands referred to as the dispersive and the electron dissipation ranges. The frequencies of the breaks f_b are shown to be well correlated with the electron gyroscale \rho_e rather than with the electron inertial length de. The distribution of the slopes below fb was found to be narrow and peaks near -2.9, while that of the slopes above fb was found broader, peaks near -5.2 and has values as low as -7.5. This is the first time that such steep power-law spectra are reported in space plasma turbulence. These observations provide strong constraints on theoretical modeling of kinetic turbulence and dissipation in collisionless magnetized plasmas.

### Collisionless Reconnection in the Large Guide Field Regime: Gyrokinetic Versus Particle-in-Cell Simulations [Cross-Listing]

Results of the first validation of large guide field, $B_g / \delta B_0 \gg 1$, gyrokinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection at a fusion and solar corona relevant $\beta_i = 0.01$ and solar wind relevant $\beta_i = 1$ are presented, where $\delta B_0$ is the reconnecting field. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations scan a wide range of guide magnetic field strength to test for convergence to the gyrokinetic limit. The gyrokinetic simulations display a high degree of morphological symmetry, to which the PIC simulations converge when $\beta_i B_g / \delta B_0 \gtrsim 1$ and $B_g / \delta B_0 \gg 1$. In the regime of convergence, the reconnection rate, relative energy conversion, and overall magnitudes are found to match well between the PIC and gyrokinetic simulations, implying that gyrokinetics is capable of making accurate predictions well outside its regime of formal applicability. These results imply that in the large guide field limit many quantities resulting from the nonlinear evolution of reconnection scale linearly with the guide field.

### Constraining the Origin of Magnetar Flares

Mechanical energy deposited inside a magnetar propagates to the surface primarily as shear waves, and enters the magnetosphere as relativistic Alfv\’en waves. Due to a strong impedance mismatch, shear waves excited in the star suffer many reflections before exiting the star. If mechanical energy is deposited near the base of the inner crust or deeper, and is converted directly to radiation upon propagation to the surface, the rise time of the emission is seconds to minutes, at odds with observed rise times of < 10 ms for both small bursts and for giant flares. Moreover, the crust is not nearly strong enough to store sufficient energy to power the two giant flares produced by SGRs 0526-66 and 1806-20. These considerations suggest that both small and giant flares arise from energy deposition mostly or entirely in the magnetosphere. A corollary to this conclusion is that if the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) seen in giant flares represent stellar oscillations, they must be excited by the magnetosphere, not by mechanical energy released inside the star. Excitation of stellar oscillations by relativistic Alfv\’en waves in the magnetosphere could be quick enough to excite stellar modes well before a giant flare ends.

### The magnetic configuration of a delta-spot

Sunspots, which harbor both magnetic polarities within one penumbra, are called delta-spots. They are often associated with flares. Nevertheless, there are only very few detailed observations of the spatially resolved magnetic field configuration. We present an investigation performed with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter at the Vacuum Tower Telescope in Tenerife. We observed a sunspot with a main umbra and several additional umbral cores, one of them with opposite magnetic polarity (the delta-umbra). The delta-spot is divided into two parts by a line along which central emissions of the spectral line Ca II 854.2 nm appear. The Evershed flow comming from the main umbra ends at this line. In deep photospheric layers, we find an almost vertical magnetic field for the delta-umbra, and the magnetic field decreases rapidly with height, faster than in the main umbra. The horizontal magnetic field in the direction connecting main and delta-umbra is rather smooth, but in one location next to a bright penumbral feature at some distance to the delta-umbra, we encounter a change of the magnetic azimuth by 90 degrees from one pixel to the next. Near the delta-umbra, but just outside, we encounter a blue-shift of the spectral line profiles which we interpret as Evershed flow away from the delta-umbra. Significant electric current densities are observed at the dividing line of the spot and inside the delta-umbra.

### X-ray observations of VY Scl type nova-like binaries in the high and low state

Four VY Scl-type nova-like systems were observed in X-rays both during the low and the high optical states. They are BZ Cam, MV Lyr, TT Ari, and V794 Aql. Using archival ROSAT, Swift and SUZAKU observations we found that the X-ray flux for BZ Cam is higher during the low state, but there is no supersoft X-ray source (SSS) that would indicate the thermonuclear burning predicted in a previous article. The X-ray flux is lower by a factor 2-10 in the low than the high state in other systems, and does not reflect the drop in $\dot{M}$ inferred from optical and UV data. The best fit model for the X-ray spectra is a collisionally ionized plasma model. The X-ray flux may originate in a shocked wind or in accretion onto polar caps in intermediate polar systems that continues even during the low state.

### The eclipsing post-common envelope binary CSS21055: a white dwarf with a probable brown-dwarf companion

We report photometric observations of the eclipsing close binary CSS21055 (SDSS J141126+200911) that strongly suggest that the companion to the carbon-oxygen white dwarf is a brown dwarf with a mass between 0.030 and 0.074 Msun. The measured orbital period is 121.73min and the totality of the eclipse lasts 125s. If confirmed, CSS21055 would be the first detached eclipsing WD+BD binary. Spectroscopy in the eclipse could provide information about the companion’s evolutionary state and atmospheric structure.

### The behavior of transverse waves in nonuniform solar flux tubes. II. Implications for coronal loop seismology

Seismology of coronal loops using observations of damped transverse oscillations in combination with results from theoretical models is a tool to indirectly infer physical parameters in the solar atmospheric plasma. Existing seismology schemes based on approximations to the period and damping time of kink oscillations are often used beyond their theoretical range of applicability. These approximations assume that the variation of density across the loop is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the loop, but the results of the inversion problem often do not satisfy this preliminary hypothesis. Here, we determine the accuracy of the analytic approximations to the period and damping time, and its impact on seismology estimates, when largely nonuniform loops are considered. We find that the accuracy of the approximations when used beyond their range of applicability is strongly affected by the form of the density profile across the loop, that is observationally unknown and so must be arbitrarily imposed as part of the theoretical model. The error associated with the analytic approximations can be larger than 50% even for relatively thin nonuniform layers. This error directly affects the accuracy of approximate seismology estimates compared to actual numerical inversions. In addition, assuming different density profiles can produce noncoincident intervals of the seismic variables in inversions of the same event. The ignorance about the true shape of density variation across the loop is an important source of error that may dispute the reliability of parameters seismically inferred assuming an ad hoc density profile.

### Heating and Dynamics of Two Flare Loop Systems Observed by AIA and EIS

We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From SDO/AIA imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EIS spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the "enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops" (EBTEL) model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.

### NuSTAR and Swift observations of the fast rotating magnetized white dwarf AE Aquarii

AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P_spin = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (L_X ~ 10^{31} erg/s). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in September of 2012. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75 +0.18 -0.45, 2.29 +0.96 -0.82, and 9.33 +6.07 -2.18 keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 +0.34 -0.23 and 4.64 +1.58 -0.84 keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 +0.17 -0.23. The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6 +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

### Dynamical resonance locking in tidally interacting binary systems

We examine the dynamics of resonance locking in detached, tidally interacting binary systems. In a resonance lock, a given stellar or planetary mode is trapped in a highly resonant state for an extended period of time, during which the spin and orbital frequencies vary in concert to maintain the resonance. This phenomenon is qualitatively similar to resonance capture in planetary dynamics. We show that resonance locks can accelerate the course of tidal evolution in eccentric systems and also efficiently couple spin and orbital evolution in circular binaries. Previous analyses of resonance locking have not treated the mode amplitude as a fully dynamical variable, but rather assumed the adiabatic (i.e. Lorentzian) approximation valid only in the limit of relatively strong mode damping. We relax this approximation, analytically derive conditions under which the fixed point associated with resonance locking is stable, and further check these analytic results using numerical integrations of the coupled mode, spin, and orbital evolution equations. These show that resonance locking can sometimes take the form of complex limit cycles or even chaotic trajectories. We provide simple analytic formulae that define the binary and mode parameter regimes in which resonance locks of some kind occur (stable, limit cycle, or chaotic). We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for white dwarf and neutron star binaries as well as eccentric stellar binaries.

### Radiation Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Protostellar Collapse: Low-Metallicity Environments

Among many physical processes involved in star formation, radiation transfer is one of the key processes since it dominantly controls the thermodynamics. Because metallicities control opacities, they are one of the important environmental parameters which affect star formation processes. In this work, I investigate protostellar collapse in solar-metallicity and low-metallicity ($Z = 0.1 Z_\odot$) environments using 3D radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Because radiation cooling is more effective in the low-metallicity environments, first cores are colder and have lower entropies. As a result, first cores are smaller, less massive and have shorter lifetimes in the low-metallicity clouds. Therefore, first cores would be less likely to be found in low-metallicity star forming clouds. This also implies that first cores tend to be more gravitationally unstable and susceptible to fragmentation. The evolution and structure of protostellar cores formed after the second collapse weakly depend on metallicities in the spherical and magnetized models despite the large difference in the metallicities. Because this is due to the change of the heat capacity by dissociation and ionization of hydrogen, it is a general consequence of the second collapse as long as the effects of radiation cooling are not very large during the second collapse. On the other hand, the effects of different metallicities are more significant in the rotating models without magnetic fields, because they evolve slower than other models and therefore more affected by radiation cooling.

### Not-So-Simple Stellar Populations in the Intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters NGC 1831 and NGC 1868

Using a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations, we explore the physical properties of the stellar populations in two intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud, NGC 1831 and NGC 1868, based on their color-magnitude diagrams. We show that both clusters exhibit extended main-sequence turn-offs. To explain the observations, we consider variations in helium abundance, binarity, age dispersions, and fast rotation of the clusters’ member stars. The observed narrow main sequence excludes significant variations in helium abundance in both clusters. We first establish the clusters’ main-sequence binary fractions using the bulk of the clusters’ main-sequence stellar populations >1 mag below their turn-offs. The extent of the turn-off regions in color–magnitude space, corrected for the effects of binarity, implies that age spreads of order 300 Myr may be inferred for both clusters if the stellar distributions in color–magnitude space were entirely due to the presence of multiple populations characterized by an age range. Invoking rapid rotation of the population of cluster members characterized by a single age also allows us to match the observed data in detail. However, when taking into account the extent of the red clump in color–magnitude space, we encounter an apparent conflict for NGC 1831 between the age dispersion derived from that based on the extent of the main-sequence turn-off and that implied by the compact red clump. We therefore conclude that, for this cluster, variations in stellar rotation rate are preferred over an age dispersion. For NGC 1868, both models perform equally well.

### What asteroseismology can do for exoplanets: Kepler-410A b is a Small Neptune around a bright star, in an eccentric orbit consistent with low obliquity

We confirm the Kepler planet candidate Kepler-410b (KOI-42b) as a Neptune sized exoplanet on a 17.8 day, eccentric orbit around the bright (Kp = 9.4) star Kepler-410A. This is the third brightest confirmed planet host star in the Kepler field and one of the brightest hosts of all currently known transiting exoplanets. Kepler-410 consists of a blend between the fast rotating planet host star (Kepler-410A) and a fainter star (Kepler-410B), which has complicated the confirmation of the planetary candidate. Employing asteroseismology, using constraints from the transit light curve, adaptive optics and speckle images, and Spitzer transit observations, we demonstrate that the candidate can only be an exoplanet orbiting Kepler-410A. Via asteroseismology we determine the following stellar and planetary parameters with high precision; M$_\star = 1.214 \pm 0.033$ M$_\odot$, R$_\star = 1.352 \pm 0.010$ R$_\odot$, Age = $2.76 \pm 0.54$ Gyr, planetary radius ($2.838 \pm 0.054$ R$_\oplus$), and orbital eccentricity ($0.17^{+0.07}_{-0.06}$). In addition, rotational splitting of the pulsation modes allows for a measurement of Kepler-410A’s inclination and rotation rate. Our measurement of an inclination of $82.5^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ [$^\circ$] indicates a low obliquity in this system. Transit timing variations indicate the presence of at least one additional (non-transiting) planet in the system.

### Colour-Magnitude Diagrams of Transiting Exoplanets. I - Systems with parallaxes

Broadband flux measurements centred around [3.6 $\mu$m] and [4.5 $\mu$m] obtained with Spitzer during the occultation of seven extrasolar planets by their host stars have been combined with parallax measurements to compute the absolute magnitudes of these planets. Those measurements are arranged in two colour-magnitude diagrams. Because most of the targets have sizes and temperatures similar to brown dwarfs, they can be compared to one another. In principle, this should permit inferences about exo-atmospheres based on knowledge acquired by decades of observations of field brown dwarfs and ultra-cool stars’ atmospheres. Such diagrams can assemble all measurements gathered so far and will provide help in the preparation of new observational programs. In most cases, planets and brown dwarfs follow similar sequences. HD\,2094589b and GJ 436b are found to be outliers, so is the nightside of HD 189733b. The photometric variability associated with the orbital phase of HD 189733b is particularly revealing. The planet exhibits what appears like a spectral type and chemical transition between its day and night sides: HD 189733b straddles the L-T spectral class transition, which would imply different cloud coverage on each hemisphere. Methane absorption could be absent at its hot spot but present over the rest of the planet.

### Measurement of acoustic glitches in solar-type stars from oscillation frequencies observed by Kepler

For the very best and brightest asteroseismic solar-type targets observed by Kepler, the frequency precision is sufficient to determine the acoustic depths of the surface convective layer and the helium ionization zone. Such sharp features inside the acoustic cavity of the star, which we call acoustic glitches, create small oscillatory deviations from the uniform spacing of frequencies in a sequence of oscillation modes with the same spherical harmonic degree. We use these oscillatory signals to determine the acoustic locations of such features in 19 solar-type stars observed by the Kepler mission. Four independent groups of researchers utilized the oscillation frequencies themselves, the second differences of the frequencies and the ratio of the small and large separation to locate the base of the convection zone and the second helium ionization zone. Despite the significantly different methods of analysis, good agreement was found between the results of these four groups, barring a few cases. These results also agree reasonably well with the locations of these layers in representative models of the stars. These results firmly establish the presence of the oscillatory signals in the asteroseismic data and the viability of several techniques to determine the location of acoustic glitches inside stars.

### Turbulence-Level Variations and Magnetic Field Orientations in the Fast Solar Wind

The turbulent magnetic fields of a large set of fast solar wind streams measured onboard ACE and STEREO A and B are analyzed in an effort to identify the effects of the turbulence-level broad variations on the orientations of the local, time-averaged magnetic fields. The power level of turbulence, roughly defined as the power in the transverse field fluctuations normalized to the medium-scale average background field, tightly orders the location of the peaks in the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the angles between local fields and Parker spiral. As a result, the broad variations in the power level of turbulence cause a steep dependence of the average power level of turbulence on the angle of the local field to the Parker spiral, with the highest turbulence levels found near the normal to the Parker spiral and the lowest levels near the Parker spiral direction. Generalized quasilinear estimates of the mean cross-field displacements adapted to intermittent time-varying turbulence lead to accurate fits of the observed angle PDFs at all stable levels of turbulence, supporting the idea that isotropic turbulence could account for the observed angle PDFs. Modeling of the angles alpha_r between local fields and radial direction, from the PDFs of the angles alpha between local and background fields under an assumption of axisymmetry of the turbulent fields around a background field in or near the direction of the Parker spiral, also produces fairly good fits of the observed PDFs of alpha_r, thereby validating the assumption. Finally, local field reversals are found to be quite common even within very broad streams of "unipolar" fast solar wind.

### The solar interface from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona : contribution of eclipses and EUV filtergrams

Eclipses are very favourable for the photosphere- chromosphere and corona interface observation as the occultation takes place in space, free of parasitic light coming from the occulting disk (the Moon). Independently, EUV filtergrams of the limb region obtained in space were analyzed using one dimensional hydrostatic VAL models but this method ignores the ubiquitous magnetic field emergence phenomenon associated with the chromospheric network. A jump of temperature from 0.01 to 1 MK is observed near the 2 Mm heights and higher, further producing a permanent solar wind flow. The heating processes responsible for this temperature jump and for the flow are not yet fully understood. In this thesis, we reconsider these problems with new high cadence CCD flash spectra, white light (W-L) eclipse images and new EUV images obtained with space-borne instruments. We illustrate the mechanisms of low First Ionisation Potential (FIP) emission lines present in the low layers of the solar atmosphere, and nearby prominences. We characterize in detail the He shells and the solar interface region. Main results: i) The solar edge and the temperature bifurcation: structuration and discussion of the analysed low FIP lines and the true continuum in the 400 to 600 km heights above the limb, emission mechanisms; ii) Visible mesospheric and chromospheric emission lines in the interface regions including the Paschen alpha HeII line starting at 800 km above the limb, produced by photo-ionisation showing shells around the Sun and probing the prominence-corona interface; iii) The contribution of small scale dynamical spicules and macro-spicules starting at 1 Mm above the limb showing that the 1D hydrostatic stratified models are not adapted to the upper layers.

### Nova Centauri 2013 broad maximum from visual observations calibrated with same altitude stars

A bright Nova in Centaurus was discovered on Dec 2, 2013 at magnitude V=5.5. Its luminosity reached mv=3.8 from Dec 5 to 7, becoming the brightest Nova of 2013 and of the last decades. On Dec 14 it brightened at mv=3.2. The observations of the author contributed to the compilation of the IAU Circular 9265 which announced the Nova as V1369 Cen and are here described. The first observations have been made with naked eye, and the use of same altitude calibration stars of similar color allowed an accuracy within 0.1 magnitudes. The method of selecting stars on the same almucantarat (altitude circle) even farther than 20 degrees, reduces the effects of differential atmospheric extinction. Its application is useful not only for bright Novae but also for luminous variable stars like the supergiant Betelgeuse and Antares and some bright Miras.

### Core and Wing Densities of Asymmetric Coronal Spectral Profiles: Implications for the Mass Supply of the Solar Corona

Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding ~ 50 km/s. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it to that of the line core which corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe XIV lines at 264.78 and 274.20 A is used to determine wing and core densities. We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe XIV lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

### The Magnetospheric Boundary in Cataclysmic Variables

The magnetic cataclysmic variables (MCVs) present a wealth of observational diagnostics for studying accretion flows interacting with a magnetosphere. Spin-period pulsations from the rotation of the white dwarf are seen in optical light, in the UV and X-ray bands, and in polarimetry, and modelling these can constrain the size and location of the accretion footprints on the white-dwarf surface. Tracing these back along field lines can tell us about the transition region between the stream or disk and the magnetosphere. Further, optical emission lines give us velocity information, while analysis of eclipses gives spatial information. I discuss MCVs (particularly FO Aqr, V405 Aur, XY Ari and EX Hya, but also mentioning PQ Gem, GK Per, V2400 Oph, HT Cam, TX Col, AO Psc, AE Aqr, WZ Sge, V1223 Sgr and DQ Her), reviewing what observations tell us about the disk-magnetosphere boundary. The spin-period variations are caused by a mixture of geometric effects and absorption by the accretion flow, and appear to show that the accretion disk feeds onto field lines differently in different systems, being sometimes along field lines ahead of the magnetic pole and sometimes behind the pole. During outbursts, when the accretion flow increases by orders of magnitude, the disk pushes the magnetosphere inwards, and appears to feed field lines over a much greater range of magnetic azimuth. The non-equilibrium outburst behaviour shows an even richer phenomenology than in quiescence, adding DNOs and QPOs into the mix.

### The nature and origin of magnetic fields in early-type stars

I review our current knowledge of magnetic fields in stars more massive than around 1.5 Msun, in particular their nature and origin. This includes the strong magnetic fields found in a subset of the population and the fossil field theory invoked to explain them; the subgauss fields detected in Vega and Sirius and their possible origin; and what we can infer about magnetic activity in massive stars and how it might be linked to subsurface convection.

### A Mid-infrared Study of RR Lyrae Stars with the WISE All-Sky Data Release

We present a group of 3740 previously identified RR Lyrae variables well-observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We explore how the shape of the generic RR Lyrae mid-infrared light curve evolves in period-space, comparing light curves in mid-infrared and optical bands. We find that optical light curves exhibit high amplitudes and a large spectrum of light curve shapes, while mid-infrared light curves have low amplitudes and uniform light curve shapes. From the period-space analysis, we hope to improve the classification methods of RR Lyrae variables and enable reliable discovery of these pulsators in the WISE catalog and future mid-infrared surveys such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We provide mid-infrared templates for typical RR Lyrae stars and demonstrate how these templates can be applied to improve estimates of mid-infrared RR Lyrae mean magnitude, which is used for distance measurement. This method of template fitting is particularly beneficial for improving observational efficiency. For example, using light curves with observational noise of 0.05 mag, we obtain the same level of accuracy in mean magnitude estimates for light curves randomly sampled at 12 data points with template fitting as with light curves randomly sampled at 20 data points with harmonic modelling.

### Rossby Wave Instability in Astrophysical Discs

A brief review is given of the Rossby wave instability (RWI) in astrophysical discs. In non-self-gravitating discs, around for example a newly forming stars, the instability can be triggered by an axisymmetric bump at some radius $r_0$ in the disc surface mass-density. It gives rise to exponentially growing non-axisymmetric perturbation [$\propto \exp({\rm i}m\phi)$, $m=1,2..$] in the vicinity of $r_0$ consisting of {\it anticyclonic} vortices. These vortices are regions of high pressure and consequently act to trap dust particles which in turn can facilitate planetesimal growth in proto-planetary discs. The Rossby vortices in the discs around stars and black holes may cause the observed quasi-periodic modulations of the disc’s thermal emission.

### iSpec: An integrated software framework for the analysis of stellar spectra

iSpec is an integrated spectroscopic software framework suitable for the creation of spectral libraries such as the Benchmark Stars library and the determination of atmospheric parameters (i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity) and individual chemical abundances. The framework can be used in automatic massive analysis, but it also includes a user-friendly visual interface that can easily interoperate with other astronomical applications such as TOPCAT, VOSpec and splat which provide access to the Virtual Observatory.

### The Core Mass Growth and Stellar Lifetime of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation by studying white dwarfs in four young star clusters, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). We show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with $M_{\rm initial}$ = 1.6 to 2.0 $M_\odot$. At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to $\sim$10% at $M_{\rm initial}$ = 3.4 $M_\odot$. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. (2013). We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the literature. Finally, we estimate the lifetime and the integrated luminosity of stars on the TP-AGB to peak at $t$ $\sim$ 3 Myr and $E$ = 1.2 $\times$ 10$^{10}$ $L_\odot$ yr for $M_{\rm initial}$ $\sim$ 2 $M_\odot$ ($t$ $\sim$ 2 Myr for luminosities brighter than the RGB tip at $\log(L/L_{\odot})$ $>$ 3.4), decreasing to $t$ = 0.4 Myr and $E$ = 6.1 $\times$ 10$^{9}$ $L_\odot$ yr for stars with $M_{\rm initial}$ $\sim$ 3.5 $M_\odot$. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to general population synthesis studies that require correct modeling of the TP-AGB phase of stellar evolution.

### KIC11911480: the second ZZ Ceti in the $Kepler$ field

We report the discovery of the second pulsating hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarf in the $Kepler$ field, KIC11911480. It was selected from the $Kepler$-INT Survey (KIS) on the basis of its colours and its variable nature was confirmed using ground-based time-series photometry. An atmosphere model fit to an intermediate-resolution spectrum of KIC11911480 places this DA white dwarf close to the blue edge of the empirical boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip: $T_\mathrm{eff} = 12\,160 \pm 250$ K and $\log{g} = 7.94 \pm 0.10$. Assuming a mass-radius relation and cooling models for DA white dwarfs, the atmospheric parameters yield: M$_{\rm WD}$ = 0.57 $\pm$ 0.06 M$_\odot$. We also obtained two quarters (Q12 and Q16) of nearly uninterrupted short-cadence $Kepler$ data on this star. We detect a total of six independent pulsation modes with a $\geq$ 3$\sigma$ confidence in its amplitude power spectrum. These pulsations have periods ranging between 172.9 s and 324.5 s, typical of the hotter ZZ Ceti stars. Our preliminary asteroseismic study suggest that KIC11911480 has a rotation rate of 3.5$\pm$0.5 days.

### Three-Hair Newtonian Relations for Rotating Stars

Astrophysical black holes can be completely described by their mass and spin due to the no-hair theorem. This was not expected to hold for stars because of their internal structure. We analytically find that arbitrarily uniformly rotating stars can still be completely described by only three numbers (mass, spin and quadrupole moment) in the Newtonian limit. Surprisingly, this description is approximately universal (independent of internal structure) for low multipole order, analytically confirming previous numerical results in full general relativity.

### Three-Hair Newtonian Relations for Rotating Stars [Cross-Listing]

Astrophysical black holes can be completely described by their mass and spin due to the no-hair theorem. This was not expected to hold for stars because of their internal structure. We analytically find that arbitrarily uniformly rotating stars can still be completely described by only three numbers (mass, spin and quadrupole moment) in the Newtonian limit. Surprisingly, this description is approximately universal (independent of internal structure) for low multipole order, analytically confirming previous numerical results in full general relativity.

### Evolution from protoplanetary to debris discs: The transition disc around HD 166191

HD 166191 has been identified by several studies as hosting a rare and extremely bright warm debris disc with an additional outer cool disc component. However, an alternative interpretation is that the star hosts a disc that is currently in transition between a full gas disc and a largely gas-free debris disc. With the help of new optical to mid-IR spectra and Herschel imaging, we argue that the latter interpretation is supported in several ways: i) we show that HD 166191 is co-moving with the ~4 Myr-old Herbig Ae star HD 163296, suggesting that the two have the same age, ii) the disc spectrum of HD 166191 is well matched by a standard radiative transfer model of a gaseous protoplanetary disc with an inner hole, and iii) the HD 166191 mid-IR silicate feature is more consistent with similarly primordial objects. We note some potential issues with the debris disc interpretation that should be considered for such extreme objects, whose lifetime at the current brightness is mush shorter than the stellar age, or in the case of the outer component requires a mass comparable to the solid component of the Solar nebula. These aspects individually and collectively argue that HD 166191 is a 4-5 Myr old star that hosts a gaseous transition disc. Though it does not argue in favour of either scenario, we find strong evidence for 3-5 um disc variability. We place HD 166191 in context with discs at different evolutionary stages, showing that it is a potentially important object for understanding the protoplanetary to debris disc transition.

### Evolution from protoplanetary to debris discs: The transition disc around HD 166191 [Replacement]

HD 166191 has been identified by several studies as hosting a rare and extremely bright warm debris disc with an additional outer cool disc component. However, an alternative interpretation is that the star hosts a disc that is currently in transition between a full gas disc and a largely gas-free debris disc. With the help of new optical to mid-IR spectra and Herschel imaging, we argue that the latter interpretation is supported in several ways: i) we show that HD 166191 is co-moving with the ~4 Myr-old Herbig Ae star HD 163296, suggesting that the two have the same age, ii) the disc spectrum of HD 166191 is well matched by a standard radiative transfer model of a gaseous protoplanetary disc with an inner hole, and iii) the HD 166191 mid-IR silicate feature is more consistent with similarly primordial objects. We note some potential issues with the debris disc interpretation that should be considered for such extreme objects, whose lifetime at the current brightness is mush shorter than the stellar age, or in the case of the outer component requires a mass comparable to the solid component of the Solar nebula. These aspects individually and collectively argue that HD 166191 is a 4-5 Myr old star that hosts a gaseous transition disc. Though it does not argue in favour of either scenario, we find strong evidence for 3-5 um disc variability. We place HD 166191 in context with discs at different evolutionary stages, showing that it is a potentially important object for understanding the protoplanetary to debris disc transition.

### Pulsating red giant stars in eccentric binary systems discovered from Kepler space-based photometry

The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler space telescope led to an improved understanding of red giant stars and binary stars. Seismology allows us to constrain the properties of red giants. In addition to eclipsing binaries, eccentric non-eclipsing binaries, exhibiting ellipsoidal modulations, have been detected with Kepler. We aim to study the properties of eccentric binary systems containing a red giant star and derive the parameters of the primary giant component. We apply asteroseismic techniques to determine masses and radii of the primary component of each system. For a selected target, light and radial velocity curve modelling techniques are applied to extract the parameters of the system. The effects of stellar on the binary system are studied. The paper presents the asteroseismic analysis of 18 pulsating red giants in eccentric binary systems, for which masses and radii were constrained. The orbital periods of these systems range from 20 to 440days. From radial velocity measurements we find eccentricities between e=0.2 to 0.76. As a case study we present a detailed analysis of KIC5006817. From seismology we constrain the rotational period of the envelope to be at least 165 d, roughly twice the orbital period. The stellar core rotates 13 times faster than the surface. From the spectrum and radial velocities we expect that the Doppler beaming signal should have a maximum amplitude of 300ppm in the light curve. Through binary modelling, we determine the mass of the secondary component to be 0.29$\pm$0.03\,$M_\odot$. For KIC5006817 we exclude pseudo-synchronous rotation of the red giant with the orbit. The comparison of the results from seismology and modelling of the light curve shows a possible alignment of the rotational and orbital axis at the 2$\sigma$ level. Red giant eccentric systems could be progenitors of cataclysmic variables and hot subdwarf B stars.

### Dive into the heart of red giant stars to better understand our Galaxy

The availability of asteroseismic constrains for of large sample of stars observed with CoRoT and Kepler paves the way for statistical studies of the seismic properties of stellar populations, and becomes a powerful tool to better understand stellar structure and evolution. Here I present predictions of stellar models computed with the code STAREVOL including thermohaline mixing together with rotational mixing. I compare the theoretical predictions for the chemical properties of stars with recent spectroscopic of both field and cluster stars observations, and discuss the effects of both mechanisms on asteroseismic diagnostics, as well as on Galactic chemical evolution of helium-3.

### Neutron Star masses from the Field Correlator Method Equation of State [Cross-Listing]

We analyse the hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars by confronting the hadronic Equation of State (EoS) obtained according to the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many body theory, with the quark matter EoS derived within the Field Correlator Method. In particular, the latter EoS is only parametrized in terms of the gluon condensate and the large distance quark-antiquark potential, so that the comparison of the results of this analysis with the most recent measurements of heavy neutron star masses provides some physical constraints on these two parameters.

### Nuclear and gravitational energies in stars

The force that governs the evolution of stars is gravity. Indeed this force drives star formation, imposes thermal and density gradients into stars at hydrostatic equilibrium and finally plays the key role in the last phases of their evolution. Nuclear power in stars governs their lifetimes and of course the stellar nucleosynthesis. The nuclear reactions are at the heart of the changes of composition of the baryonic matter in the Universe. This change of composition, in its turn, has profound consequences on the evolution of stars and galaxies. The energy extracted from the gravitational, respectively nuclear reservoirs during the lifetimes of stars of different masses are estimated. It is shown that low and intermediate mass stars (M < 8 Msol) extract roughly 90 times more energy from their nuclear reservoir than from their gravitational one, while massive stars (M > 8 Msol), which explode in a supernova explosion, extract more than 5 times more energy from the gravitational reservoir than from the nuclear one. We conclude by discussing a few important nuclear reactions and their link to topical astrophysical questions.

### Breakout and Tether-cutting Eruption Models Are Both Catastrophic (Sometimes)

We present a simplified analytic model of a quadrupolar magnetic field and flux rope to model coronal mass ejections. The model magnetic field is two-dimensional, force-free and has current only on the axis of the flux rope and within two currents sheets. It is a generalization of previous models containing a single current sheet anchored to a bipolar flux distribution. Our new model can undergo quasi-static evolution due either to changes at the boundary or to magnetic reconnection at either current sheet. We find that all three kinds of evolution can lead to a catastrophe known as loss of equilibrium. Some equilibria can be driven to catastrophic instability either through reconnection at the lower current sheet, known as tether cutting, or through reconnection at the upper current sheet, known as breakout. Other equilibria can be destabilized through only one and not the other. Still others undergo no instability, but evolve increasingly rapidly in response to slow steady driving (ideal or reconnective). One key feature of every case is a response to reconnection different from that found in simpler systems. In our two-current sheet model a reconnection electric field in one current sheet causes the current in that sheet to {\em increase} rather than decrease. This suggests the possibility for the microscopic reconnection mechanism to run away.

### Observations of flux rope formation prior to coronal mass ejections

Understanding the magnetic configuration of the source regions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is vital in order to determine the trigger and driver of these events. Observations of four CME productive active regions are presented here, which indicate that the pre-eruption magnetic configuration is that of a magnetic flux rope. The flux ropes are formed in the solar atmosphere by the process known as flux cancellation and are stable for several hours before the eruption. The observations also indicate that the magnetic structure that erupts is not the entire flux rope as initially formed, raising the question of whether the flux rope is able to undergo a partial eruption or whether it undergoes a transition in specific flux rope configuration shortly before the CME.

### Hot Spin Polarized Strange Quark Stars in the Presence of Magnetic Field using a density dependent bag constant

The effect of magnetic field on the structure properties of hot spin polarized strange quark stars has been investigated. For this purpose, we use the MIT bag model with a density dependent bag constant to calculate the thermodynamic properties of spin polarized strange quark matter such as energy and equation of state. We see that the energy and equation of state of strange quark matter changes significantly in a strong magnetic field. Finally, using our equation of state, we compute the structure of spin polarized strange quark star at different temperatures and magnetic fields.

### Young stellar object jet models: From theory to synthetic observations

Astronomical observations, analytical solutions and numerical simulations have provided the building blocks to formulate the current theory of young stellar object jets. Although each approach has made great progress independently, it is only during the last decade that significant efforts are being made to bring the separate pieces together. Building on previous work that combined analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we apply a sophisticated cooling function to incorporate optically thin energy losses in the dynamics. On the one hand, this allows a self-consistent treatment of the jet evolution and on the other, it provides the necessary data to generate synthetic emission maps. Firstly, analytical disk and stellar outflow solutions are properly combined to initialize numerical two-component jet models inside the computational box. Secondly, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations are performed in 2.5D, following properly the ionization and recombination of a maximum of $29$ ions. Finally, the outputs are post-processed to produce artificial observational data. The first two-component jet simulations, based on analytical models, that include ionization and optically thin radiation losses demonstrate promising results for modeling specific young stellar object outflows. The generation of synthetic emission maps provides the link to observations, as well as the necessary feedback for the further improvement of the available models.

### Propagating Linear Waves in Convectively Unstable Stellar Models: a Perturbative Approach

Linear time-domain simulations of acoustic oscillations are unstable in the stellar convection zone. To overcome this problem it is customary to compute the oscillations of a stabilized background stellar model. The stabilization, however, affects the result. Here we propose to use a perturbative approach (running the simulation twice) to approximately recover the acoustic wave field, while preserving seismic reciprocity. To test the method we considered a 1D standard solar model. We found that the mode frequencies of the (unstable) standard solar model are well approximated by the perturbative approach within $1~\mu$Hz for low-degree modes with frequencies near $3~\mu$Hz. We also show that the perturbative approach is appropriate for correcting rotational-frequency kernels. Finally, we comment that the method can be generalized to wave propagation in 3D magnetized stellar interiors because the magnetic fields have stabilizing effects on convection.

### Global and non-global parameters of horizontal branch morphology of globular clusters

The horizontal branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs) is mainly determined by metallicity. However, the fact that GCs with almost the same metallicity exhibit different HB morphologies demonstrates that at least one more parameter is needed to explain the HB morphology. It has been suggested that one of these should be a global parameter that varies from GC to GC, and the other a non-global parameter that varies within the GC. In this study we provide empirical evidence corroborating this idea. We used the photometric catalogs obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and analyse the CMDs of 74 GCs. The HB morphology of our sample of GCs has been investigated on the basis of the two new parameters L1 and L2 that measure the distance between the RGB and the coolest part of the HB, and the color extension of the HB, respectively. We find that L1 correlates with both metallicity and age, whereas L2 most strongly correlates with the mass of the hosting GC. The range of helium abundance among the stars in a GC, characterised by Delta Y and associated with the presence of multiple stellar populations, has been estimated in a few GCs to date. In these GCs we find a close relationship among Delta Y, GC mass, and L2. We conclude that age and metallicity are the main global parameters while the range of helium abundance within a GC is the main non-global parameter defining the HB morphology of Galactic GCs.

### The surface nitrogen abundance of a massive star in relation to its oscillations, rotation, and magnetic field

We have composed a sample of 68 massive stars in our galaxy whose projected rotational velocity, effective temperature and gravity are available from high-precision spectroscopic measurements. The additional seven observed variables considered here are their surface nitrogen abundance, rotational frequency, magnetic field strength, and the amplitude and frequency of their dominant acoustic and gravity mode of oscillation. Multiple linear regression to estimate the nitrogen abundance combined with principal components analysis, after addressing the incomplete and truncated nature of the data, reveals that the effective temperature and the frequency of the dominant acoustic oscillation mode are the only two significant predictors for the nitrogen abundance, while the projected rotational velocity and the rotational frequency have no predictive power. The dominant gravity mode and the magnetic field strength are correlated with the effective temperature but have no predictive power for the nitrogen abundance. Our findings are completely based on observations and their proper statistical treatment and call for a new strategy in evaluating the outcome of stellar evolution computations.

### New opportunities with spectro-interferometry and spectro-astrometry

Latest-generation spectro-interferometric instruments combine a milliarcsecond angular resolution with spectral capabilities, resulting in an immensely increased information content. Here, I present methodological work and results that illustrate the fundamentally new scientific insights provided by spectro-interferometry with very high spectral dispersion or in multiple line transitions (Brackett and Pfund lines). In addition, I discuss some pitfalls in the interpretation of spectro-interferometric data. In the context of our recent studies on the classical Be stars {\beta} CMi and {\zeta} Tau, I present the first position-velocity diagram obtained with optical interferometry and provide a physical interpretation for a phase inversion, which has in the meantime been observed for several classical Be-stars. In the course of our study on the Herbig B[e] star V921 Sco, we combined, for the first time, spectro-interferometry and spectro-astrometry, providing a powerful and resource-efficient way to constrain the spatial distribution as well as the kinematics of the circumstellar gas with an unprecedented velocity resolution up to R = {\lambda}/{\Delta}{\lambda} = 100,000. Finally, I discuss our phase sign calibration procedure, which has allowed us to calibrate AMBER differential phases and closure phases for all spectral modes, and derive from the gained experience science-driven requirements for future instrumentation projects.

### Dust Production and Particle Acceleration in Supernova 1987A Revealed with ALMA

Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450um, 870um, 1.4mm, and 2.8mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2Msun). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star’s core). The dust emission is concentrated to the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.

### The Hercules-Lyra Association revisited New age estimation and multiplicity study

The Her-Lyr assoc., a nearby young MG, contains a few tens of ZAMS stars of SpT F to M. The existence and the properties of the Her-Lyr assoc. are controversial and discussed in the literature. The present work reassesses properties and the member list of Her-Lyr assoc., based on kinematics and age. Many objects form multiple systems or have low-mass companions and so we need to account for multiplicity. We use our own new imaging obs. and archival data to identify multiple systems. The colors and magnitudes of kinematic candidates are compared to isochrones. We derive further information on the age based on Li depletion, rotation, and coronal and chromospheric activity. A set of canonical members is identified to infer mean properties. Membership criteria are derived from the mean properties and used to discard non-members. The candidates selected from the literature belong to 35 stellar systems, 42.9% of which are multiple. Four multiple systems are confirmed in this work by common proper motion. An orbital solution is presented for the binary system HH Leo B and C. Indeed, a group of candidates displays signatures of youth. 7 canonical members are identified. The distribution of EWLi of canonical Her-Lyr members is spread widely and is similar to that of the Pleiades and the UMa group. Gyrochronology gives an age of 257+-46 Myr which is in between the ages of the Pleiades and the Ursa Major group. The measures of chromospheric and coronal activity support the young age. Four membership criteria are presented based on kinematics, EWLi, chromospheric activity, and gyro. age. In total, 11 stars are identified as certain members including co-moving objects plus additional 23 possible members while 14 candidates are doubtful or can be rejected. A comparison to the mass function, however, indicates the presence of a large number of additional unidentified low-mass members.

### The Type IIb Supernova 2013df and Its Cool Supergiant Progenitor

We have obtained early-time photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 2013df in NGC 4414. The SN is clearly of Type IIb, with notable similarities to SN 1993J. From its luminosity at secondary maximum light, it appears that less $^{56}$Ni ($\lesssim 0.06\ M_{\odot}$) was synthesized in the SN 2013df explosion than was the case for the SNe IIb 1993J, 2008ax, and 2011dh. Based on a comparison of the light curves, the SN 2013df progenitor must have been more extended in radius prior to explosion than the progenitor of SN 1993J. The total extinction for SN 2013df is estimated to be $A_V=0.30$ mag. The metallicity at the SN location is likely to be solar. We have conducted Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Target of Opportunity observations of the SN with the Wide Field Camera 3, and from a precise comparison of these new observations to archival HST observations of the host galaxy obtained 14 years prior to explosion, we have identified the progenitor of SN 2013df to be a yellow supergiant, somewhat hotter than a red supergiant progenitor for a normal Type II-Plateau SN. From its observed spectral energy distribution, assuming that the light is dominated by one star, the progenitor had effective temperature $T_{\rm eff} = 4250 \pm 100$ K and a bolometric luminosity $L_{\rm bol}=10^{4.94 \pm 0.06}\ L_{\odot}$. This leads to an effective radius $R_{\rm eff} = 545 \pm 65\ R_{\odot}$. The star likely had an initial mass in the range of 13 to 17 $M_{\odot}$; however, if it was a member of an interacting binary system, detailed modeling of the system is required to estimate this mass more accurately. The progenitor star of SN 2013df appears to have been relatively similar to the progenitor of SN 1993J.